The 1980′s was all about the rise and fall of turbo engines, the War between F1′s governing bodies FISA and FOCA, and the tremendous advances in safety standards that tragedies were now few and far between. This decade also saw the introduction of a more definite and restrictive set of rules and regulations in all possible areas meaning that various aerodynamic innovations introduced in the 1960’s and 1970’s were either restricted or eventually out-lawed. Once prominent features such as local entrants and privateers running customer chassis and Non-Championship races would also become a thing of the past during this time. After their dominace of the 1960′s and the 1st half of the 1970′s, the Brits were destined not to win at all in the 1980′s, finishing runner-up no less than 3 times and suffering their worst season ever right at the start of the decade. The decade began with the rise of Williams, as Australian Alan Jones won 5 races in a dominant season for the team, with new team-mate Carlos Reutemann contributing 1 win. The dominant forces of 1978 and 1979, Lotus and Ferrari would both flounder in 1980, scoring just 22 points between them. Brazilian Nelson Piquet was the only driver who could possibly deny Williams their 1st Driver’s title, scoring 3 wins for the rejuvenated Brabham team, but 2 DNF’s in the final 2 races where Jones won cost Piquet the title. Williams had a relatively unchallenged run to their 1st Constructor’s title, as Brabham were let down by the struggling Ricardo Zunino, who failed to score. The Argentine was replaced mid-season by Mexican driver Hector Rebaque, who would contribute just a single point to Brabham’s tally, not even enough for 2nd place overall. Only 4 teams won a race in 1980, the other 2 being Renault with 3 wins, and Ligier with 2. Apart from Jones and Piquet, the only other driver to win more than once in 1980 was Renault driver Rene Arnoux with 2 wins, the other 3 wins shared by his compatriots Jacques Laffite and Didier Pironi in the Ligiers, and team-mate Jean-Pierre Jabouille. This season marked the F1 bows of future World Champions France’s Alain Prost for McLaren, and Britain’s Nigel Mansell for Lotus. As 2 future World Champions were making their F1 bows, 2 former World Champions announced their retirements, Emerson Fittipaldi after 5 seasons with his eponymous team and Jody Scheckter, whose title defence had mustered just a single 5th place and a non-qualification in Canada. Scheckter’s team-mate Gilles Villeneuve fared no better. New Zealander Mike Thackwell became F1′s youngest driver to date at just 19 and a half years old when he made his debut at the Canadian Grand Prix for Tyrrell. The Shadow team finally keeled over and Osella made their F1 bow with a single entry for American Eddie Cheever. Big crashes were still a common occurence, as Swiss driver Clay Regazzoni was paralyzed from the waist down after a huge shunt in his Ensign at Long Beach, and Frenchman Patrick Depailler died when he crashed his Alfa Romeo in practice for the German Grand Prix at Hockenheim. The Italian Grand Prix was held at Imola this year, the circuit having previously held a non-championship race in 1979, marking the 1st time Grand Prix motor racing had not gone to Monza since it’s inception in 1922.
Williams were the early pace-setters again in 1981, with defending champion Alan Jones leading a Williams 1-2 in the season opener at Long Beach, and team-mate Carlos Reutemann doing likewise at the Brazilian Grand Prix. But the Argentine defied team-orders in order to beat Jones, and soon the 2 team-mates were no longer speaking to each other, a deadly feud had begun. That feud allowed Brabham driver Nelson Piquet to launch a bid for the title, claiming the next 2 races in Argentina at Reutemann’s expense and Imola, now hosting the San Marino Grand Prix. That race was notable for the absence of Lotus, who withdrew after their new twin-chassis 88, was banned from competing. Reutemann then triumphed at a tragic Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder, where he ran into Osella mechanic Giovanni Amadeo during Friday practice, the Italian dying from his injuries the following Monday. A similar incident occured on Sunday when Arrows mechanic Dave Luckett tried to start Ricardo Patrese’s stricken Arrows from the rear, after the Italian stalled on the grid, only to be slammed into by Italian new-comer Siegfried Stohr in the other Arrows. Luckett survived but thereafter, mechanics had to clear the grid 15 seconds before the parade lap, with greater caution on the part of the race organiser. After a disastrous 1980 season, Ferrari had not shown any immediate signs of improvement, then came Monaco where Gilles Villeneuve triumphed after Piquet crashed out and Jones faltered. Villeneuve won again in the Spanish Grand Prix at Jarama, pursued all the way by Jacques Laffite’s Ligier, John Watson‘s McLaren, Carlos Reutemann’s Williams and Elio De Angelis’ Lotus, all covered by 1.2 seconds. The French Grand Prix saw a home win for Renault, thanks to their latest recruit Alain Prost, the Frenchman’s 1st win. Having been Britain’s top driver of 1980 despite no podiums, an all-time low for his country, Ulsterman John Watson scored McLaren’s 1st win since 1977 in his home Grand Prix at Silverstone. Piquet struck back at Hockenheim. The next 4 races were shared by Prost and Laffite. By this time, only the inaugural Caesar’s Palace Grand Prix at Las Vegas remained, with Reutemann leading Piquet 49 points to 48 and Laffite an outside contender on 43. Reutemann took pole but faded to 8th in the race, Piquet managed to hang on to 5th place, thus claiming his 1st World Title by a point. Jones won the race from Prost, meaning that the top 5 drivers were seperated by just 7 points, while Williams won their 2nd Constructor’s title in as many years. This season marked the return of March and Theodore, and the arrival of Toleman, with Formula 2 Champion Brian Henton and fellow British driver Derek Warwick. Arrows scored their 1st pole position at Long Beach thanks to Patrese, while fellow Italian Michele Alboreto made his F1 bow with Tyrrell, replacing Ricardo Zunino. 1978 Champion Mario Andretti retired after a disappointing season with Alfa Romeo.
The 1982 season would go down in History as the most competitive Formula 1 season to date. The 16 races held in 1982 would produce no less than 11 different winners, all of whom winning once or twice, but no more. The 1982 season would also be blighted by tragedy, controvesy, and the rise of the pioneering turbos. After the acrimony of 1981, Alan Jones retired and replaced by Keke Rosberg, with team-mate Carlos Reutemann doing likewise after just 2 races. Both of which were won by Renault’s Alain Prost, although the latter race, the Brazilian Grand Prix, was originally won by defending Champion Nelson Piquet in the Brabham followed by Rosberg, only for both drivers to be disqualified. Double World Champion Niki Lauda returned to F1 with McLaren and scored his 1st win for the team at Long Beach. Next was the San Marino Grand Prix, where only the FISA teams were present, as the FOCA teams were angry about the controvesy in Brazil, leaving just 14 entries. The race was a battle between the Ferraris and the Renaults, but once the Renaults had retired, the Ferraris of Gilles Villeneuve and Didier Pironi were left fighting each other. After repeatedly fighting over the lead, Pironi eventually won against all team-orders, thus losing Villeneuve’s respect in the process. Tragically, Villeneuve crashed fatally in practice for the next race, the Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder. Ferrari immediately withdrew, and it was John Watson who triumphed for McLaren. Monaco was next, and boy was it a classic, with the likes of Prost, Pironi, Brabham’s Ricardo Patrese, Alfa Romeo’s Andrea De Cesaris and Irishman Derek Daly, who had replaced Reutemann at Williams after starting the season with Theodore, all falling off the wagon within sight of the flag. In the end, Patrese recovered to take his 1st win, with Pironi 2nd and compatriot De Cesaris in 3rd. Watson shone at Detroit, taking his 2nd win of the season after starting 17th. Tragedy occured once more at Canada, when Italian rookie Ricardo Paletti died after crashing his Osella into the back of Pironi’s stricken Ferrari on the grid, Nelson Piquet won the race. Pironi joined the 2 wins club in the Dutch Grand Prix, where Ferrari finally found a replacement for Villeneuve, Frenchman Patrick Tambay who finished 8th. Lauda then triumphed at the British Grand Prix for McLaren, whilst Rene Arnoux scored a home win for Renault in the French Grand Prix, then Tambay scored his 1st win in the German Grand Prix. That race was famous for a collision between Piquet and Chilean driver Eliseo Salazar in the ATS, which ended in fisticuffs, as well as a huge crash in practice for Pironi that spelt the end of his F1 career. Keke Rosberg had been the most consistent performer of 1982, but had yet to even win a race, and was narrowly prevented from doing so in Austria by Lotus driver Elio De Angelis. Rosberg finally won a race at the Swiss Grand Prix, which was actually held at Dijon in France. The Italian Grand Prix went to Arnoux, with Italian driver Michele Alboreto scoring his 1st win in a Tyrrell in the season-closing Caesar’s Palace Grand Prix at Las Vegas, where Rosberg finished 5th to become World Champion. His nearest rival had been Watson, who needed to win with Rosberg failing to score, but was destined to finish 2nd in both the race and the championship. The March, Ensign and Fittipaldi teams all pulled out of F1 at the end of the season, whilst Mario Andretti made an emotional return for Ferrari after Pironi’s accident, finishing 3rd at Monza. There had also been a low-key return to F1 for Jochen Mass with March. Brabham was the latest team to switch to turbos during the season, running with BMW power, which meant for a disappointing title defence for Piquet. The Brazilian scoring just 1 win, slumping to 11th overall behind his team-mate, and failing to qualify in Detroit. His successor, Keke Rosberg had matched Mike Hawthorn’s feat of clinching the title with just 1 win to his name, which would also be the last for the legendary Ford-Cosworth DFV. Tragically, Lotus’ legendary founder Colin Chapman died of a heart attack at the end of the season.
The turbos were taking over fast, Brabham, ATS, Toleman and incoming Spirit, the latter masterminding Honda’s return to F1, all began the season with turbo power. By the end of the season, Williams, McLaren, Lotus and Osella would have also made the inevitable conversion. The banning of ground-effects and 6 wheelers for 1983 led to some very interesting looking cars, none more so than the Gordon Murray designed Brabham BT52, shaped like a dart. Their lead driver Nelson Piquet drew 1st blood on home soil in Brazil. There followed a magnificent McLaren 1-2 at Long Beach, with John Watson leading home Niki Lauda, after they had started 22nd and 23rd on the grid respectively. That race was also notable for an ill-fated one-off return for 1980 Champion Alan Jones in an Arrows. Alain Prost scored Renault’s 3rd home win in as many years in the French Grand Prix, before compatriot Patrick Tambay scored an emotional win for Ferrari at Imola, which he dedicated to his late predecessor Gilles Villeneuve. Defending Champion Keke Rosberg scored his 1st win of the season at Monaco, with Prost winning the Belgian Grand Prix, which had returned to Spa after a 13 year absence. Michele Alboreto scored the last win for Tyrrell and the Ford-Cosworth DFV in Detroit, thereafter, the turbos would dominate. Rene Arnoux, now driving for Ferrari after falling out with Renault, scored his 1st win for the Prancing Horse in Canada. Prost scored his 3rd win of the year in the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Arnoux triumphed once more in Germany, then Prost took his tally to 4 wins in Austria, with Arnoux extending the pattern at the Dutch Grand Prix. Piquet then triumphed in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, and the European Grand Prix at Brands Hatch, the latter race marked the debut of British driver Jonathan Palmer in a 3rd Williams. Only the South African Grand Prix remained, with Prost leading Piquet 57 points to 55, but the Frenchman retired and Piquet went on to finish 3rd. The Brazilian was a double World Champion. The race was won by Piquet’s team-mate Ricardo Patrese in the 2nd Brabham. This season marked the departure of Theodore and French driver Jean-Pierre Jarier.
By 1984, the turbos had taken over to such an extent, that only Tyrrell were runningly normally-aspirated engines. Indeed, Tyrrell were destined not to score in 1984, as they were found to be running illegal cars at Detroit, and had all their results from the 1984 season annulled. It was McLaren with their TAG-Porsche turbos that would go on to dominate preceedings, with Alain Prost joining Niki Lauda, in place of John Watson. The Renault team had sacked Prost, along with his American team-mate Eddie Cheever, to be replaced by British hope Derek Warwick and Patrick Tambay. Indeed, McLaren won the 1st 2 races, Prost in Brazil and Lauda in South Africa, before Ferrari’s latest recruit Michele Alboreto triumphed in Belgium. McLaren then won the next 3 races, with Prost winning the San Marino Grand Prix at Imola, and Lauda in France. Prost took the spoils in a rain-soaked Monaco Grand Prix that was stopped after 31 laps, meaning half-points were awarded, but not before the young-guns had had a chance to show their potential. Prost had come under-threat from the likes of Britain’s Nigel Mansell in the Lotus, Brazilian new-comer Ayrton Senna in the Toleman, and German new-comer Stefan Bellof in the Tyrrell during that race. Defending Champion Nelson Piquet had suffered from a unreliable Brabham so far in 1984, and so proceeded to win the next 2 races in Canada and Detroit, the latter race marked the coming of age of British new-comer Martin Brundle in the 2nd Tyrrell who finished 2nd. But of course, by this time, Tyrrell’s cars had been declared illegal. To make matters worse, Brundle had a huge crash in practice for the inaugural Dallas Grand Prix, breaking both feet. The Dallas heat caused the track surface to break up, and after a race of absolute carnage, Keke Rosberg eventually won for Williams. That race was notable for Italian driver Piercarlo Ghinzani finishing 5th for Osella, his only point-scoring drive, and Nigel Mansell finishing 6th despite running out of fuel. He proceeded to push his stricken Lotus over the line and promptly collapsed in the searing heat. Thereafter, McLaren would never be beaten again in 1984, Lauda and Prost taking 3 wins apiece in the next 6 races. By this time, only the Portuguese Grand Prix at Estoril remained, with Lauda leading Prost 66 points to 62.5. Prost won the race, but Lauda finished 2nd to take the title by just half a point, his 3rd World Title. After Brundle’s big crash at Dallas, Venezuelan driver Johnny Cecotto suffered career-ending leg injuries at Brands Hatch, crashing his Toleman. French rookie Philippe Alliot then crashed heavily during the race in his RAM. 2 promising young Austrians made their F1 bows during the season, Jo Gartner for Osella, and Gerhard Berger for ATS. They finished 5th and 6th repectively at Monza but neither were eligible for points. F1 returned to the Nurburgring, now held on the much shorter Sudschleife circuit, built alongside the legendary Nordschleife. That race was held as the European Grand Prix, as the German Grand Prix was held at Hockenheim, as it had been every year since 1977. The ATS team sadly keeled over at the end of the season. Despite winning the title, Lauda had not taken a single pole position all season, only 1967 Champion Denny Hulme had previously achieved this feat.
After the near-misses of 1983 and 1984, Alain Prost dominated in 1985, taking 5 wins and winning his 1st World Title by 23 points. His World Champion team-mate Niki Lauda faded away, winning only the last ever Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort, before retiring once more, this time, for good. Ferrari’s Michele Alboreto was to be Prost’s nearest challenger in 1985, winning in Canada and Germany, but blew his chance with 5 non-scores in the last 5 races. There were firsts and lasts aplenty in 1985, starting with the 1st wins for Ayrton Senna in Portugal for Lotus, and Nigel Mansell in the last ever European Grand Prix to be held at Brands Hatch for Williams. The Britain had taken 72 races to achieve this goal. This was the 1st season in which all teams ran on turbo power. There were last wins for Brabham thanks to Nelson Piquet in France, Keke Rosberg scoring his last 2 wins in Detroit and the 1st ever Australian Grand Prix at Adelaide, and Elio De Angelis scoring his last win at Imola after Prost was disqualified. The German Grand Prix returned to the Nurburgring, and the Belgian Grand Prix returned to Spa for good after a one-off return to Zolder in 1984, and the Paul Ricard, Silverstone, and Monte Carlo circuits were all modified for 1986. Several teams bowed out of F1 during the season such as RAM, Renault, Toleman, Spirit and Alfa Romeo. At the same time, several teams made their 1st appearences such as Minardi, Zakspeed and Haas-Lola. The latter masterminding the full time return of Alan Jones after a one-off return in 1983. There were one-off outings for Rene Arnoux, sacked by Ferrari after just 1 race, and replaced by Sweden’s Stefan Johansson, who had originally signed for Tyrrell, and John Watson in place of Lauda at the Nurburgring. It was a tragic year for Germany as Stefan Bellof and Manfred Winkelhock, driving for Tyrrell and RAM respectively, passed away within a few weeks of each other in seperate accidents whilst competing in the World Sportscar Championship. This season also marked the arrival of the on-board camera, first attempted by Renault at the Nurburgring via a 3rd entry for French driver Francois Hesnault, who was an early retirement.
After 2 years of McLaren dominance, the Williams-Honda was the car to have in 1986, with Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet, who had replaced Keke Rosberg, winning 9 races between them. Unfortunately, Mansell and Piquet fell out with each other very quickly, and their constant scrapes allowed Alain Prost to launch a bid for the title. He won 4 times, as many as Piquet, but one less than Mansell. Only Ayrton Senna in the Lotus managed to beat those 3 drivers more than once, narrowly beating Mansell in Spain, then winning again at Detroit. The only other winner was Austria’s Gerhard Berger, marking F1′s return to Mexico with his 1st win, also the 1st for the new Benetton team. F1 also made its 1st visit to Hungary, where Piquet led Senna to a Brazilian 1-2, with Mansell 3rd. The German Grand Prix returned to Hockenheim where Piquet triumphed, while Brands Hatch hosted its last British Grand Prix, where Nigel Mansell scored a 2nd straight home win. F1 would never go back to Brands Hatch after 1986, as the race was marred by a horrific pile-up at the start that left Frenchman Jacques Laffite with career-ending leg injuries, his seat at Ligier taken by compatriot Philippe Alliot. Going into the finale at Adelaide, Mansell led Prost and Piquet by 7 points, and the Brit was running 3rd behind his rivals. Suddenly, Mansell’s rear tyre blew spectacularly, putting him out of the race. Piquet was brought in for a pre-cautionary pit stop, allowing Prost to take the lead, the Frenchman winning the race. This made Prost the 1st driver to win back-to-back titles since Jack Brabham. Williams were clear winners in the Constructor’s Championship though. It was a poor season for Ferrari with no wins, and just 8 points ahead of Ligier in the Constructor’s Championship, for whom former Ferrari driver Rene Arnoux was driving. There was tragedy during a test at Paul Ricard, when Elio De Angelis crashed his Brabham, an accident that would eventually prove fatal. This signalled the beginning of the end for the turbo era. Keke Rosberg and British new-comer Johnny Dumfries both retired at the end of the season, along with Alan Jones and Patrick Tambay, after Haas-Lola pulled out. AGS made their 1st appearence with Italian Ivan Capelli at the wheel.
Alain Prost and McLaren were finally usurped in 1987, as the Williams-Hondas dominated, Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet once-again winning 9 races between them. The turbos were restricted for 1987, and a sub-category called the Jim Clark Cup was introduced specifically for the non-turbo drivers, with the Colin Chapman Cup applying to their teams. Prost had a great start to the season, winning 2 of the 1st 3 races, with only Mansell interrupting his run at Imola. That race had been run without Piquet, who had a big shunt in practice, promoting Italian new-comer Gabriele Tarquini onto the grid to become F1′s 500th starter. After a spectacular fall-out with Mansell in Belgium, Ayrton Senna won in Monaco and Detroit for Lotus, their last as a constructor and the 1st for active suspension. Williams dominated the next 6 races, with 2 wins for Mansell, then 2 for Piquet, then Mansell winning in Austria and Piquet at Monza, more often than not at each other’s expense. Prost ended Williams’ run in Portugal, taking his 28th victory in doing so, beating Jackie Stewart’s record. Mansell then triumphed in Spain and Mexico, but Piquet’s consistency meant that he lead Mansell by 12 points, with 2 races to go. The 1st of these was the Japanese Grand Prix, back on the calendar after a 10 year absence, but now held at Suzuka. It was here that the championship was settled. But the championship was not settled in the race, it was settled in practice when Nigel Mansell had a nasty accident at the daunting 130R corner, ending his 1987 season on the spot. Piquet was Champion for the 3rd time, but he retired from the last 2 races, both of which were won by Gerhard Berger. The Austrian was now driving for Ferrari, and led team-mate Michele Alboreto to a Ferrari 1-2 in the season-closing Australian Grand Prix, where Williams poached Ricardo Patrese from the departing Brabham team one race early so Stefano Modena made his debut in his compatriot’s place. Patrese had signed to replace Piquet for 1988, with Piquet going to Lotus, and Senna to McLaren. While Williams dominated the outright titles, the non-turbo titles were dominated by Tyrrell with lead driver Jonathan Palmer the eventual winner, followed by his team-mate Philippe Streiff. The other non-turbo teams were AGS, the returning March team, and incoming Coloni and Larrousse Lola. Italy’s Teo Fabi retired at the end of the season while Martin Brundle scored Zakspeed’s only points at Imola with 5th place.
Honda switched to McLaren for 1988, leaving Williams saddled with normally-aspirated Judd engines, and Alain Prost and Ayrton Senna proceeded to dominate. The McLaren MP4-4 was the class of the field, winning 15 out of 16 races, 8 for Senna and 7 for Prost. The only race McLaren didn’t win was the Italian Grand Prix, where Prost’s engine blew, and Senna retired after a collision with Williams stand-in Jean-Louis Schlesser. This set the scene for a stunning Ferrari 1-2 led by Gerhard Berger, in their home Grand Prix, just weeks after the death of their great founder Enzo Ferrari. Thanks to the best 11 score rule, Ayrton Senna won the title after a great comeback drive at Suzuka after slumping to 14th at the start, his overall tally was less than that of Prost. It was a poor season for Nelson Piquet, scoring no better than 3 3rd places for Lotus, and Nigel Mansell. The Britain finished just twice all season, each time in 2nd place, and was absent from Spa and Monza due to ill-health. There was promise shown by the Benettons of Belgium’s Thierry Boutsen and Italy’s Alessandro Nannini, along with Derek Warwick and Eddie Cheever in the Arrows’, and Ivan Capelli in the March. All scoring a great haul of podium finishes between them, Capelli even took the fight to Prost at Suzuka, leading the McLaren briefly before Prost re-took him. This season marked the end of the turbo era, and this lead to the arrival of Rial, Eurobrun and Dallara. Only Rial would score points thanks to their sole driver Andrea De Cesaris finishing 4th at Detroit. After 3 seasons, Minardi also scored their 1st point in at Detroit with Italian driver Pierluigi Martini, who had replaced their original lead driver Adrian Campos from Spain after 5 races.
The turbos were out, and the buzz-words in 1989 were 3.5 litre regs, and the number of teams rose to an all-time record of 20. This consisted of the 18 existing teams from 1988, along with incoming Onyx, and the return of Brabham. Consequently, there were as many as 39 drivers fighting over 26 grid slots at each race, and there were many drivers who never made the grid in 1989. At the front of the field, McLaren continued to dominate, but it was Nigel Mansell who drew 1st blood in Brazil in his 1st race for Ferrari. His team-mate Gerhard Berger had a nasty fiery shunt at Imola from which he emerged with minor burns. That race was won by Ayrton Senna, but he had a disagreement with Prost after the race, and so began a bitter feud. Senna also won in Monaco and Mexico, but then racked up 4 straight retirements, starting with the United States Grand Prix now held at Phoenix. Prost won that race, then Thierry Boutsen scored his 1st win in a Williams at his 95th attempt, then Prost won in France and Britain. Senna struck back at Hockenheim, then Nigel Mansell rocked the establishment at Hungary, winning from 12th on the grid. Senna won at Spa, but engine failure handed victory to Prost at Monza, and the Brazilian retired again in Portugal. This time, the reason for Senna’s retirement was a collision with Mansell, who had just been black-flagged for reversing into his pit box. Berger won the race after a difficult season, while Mansell was banned from the next race for his actions. Senna triumphed in Spain, and now trailed Prost by 16 points going into the last 2 races, the 1st of which was Suzuka. Prost dominated preceedings with Senna in 2nd, but the Brazilian was reeling the Frenchman in, finally catching him with 7 laps to go. It was here that Senna made his move, diving down the inside of Prost at the final chicane, Prost turned in on Ayrton and off the track they went. Prost was out on the spot, Senna continued and proceeded to win the race, but was disqualified for being push-started and rejoining via the escape road. This handed the win to Alessandro Nannini in the Benetton, and the title to Prost, and Senna proceeded to accuse FIA president Jean-Marie Balestre of conspiring to prevent him from beating Prost. The Australian Grand Prix at Adelaide was wet and carnage-filled. Prost withdrew from the race after just 1 lap, but Senna carried on and led until a collision with Martin Brundle’s Brabham put him out, handing the win to Boutsen. Plenty of promising young drivers came of age in 1989, such as Stefano Modena for Brabham, Britain’s Johnny Herbert for Benetton, France’s Jean Alesi for Tyrrell and Brazil’s Maurico Gugelmin for March, despite a big crash at Paul Ricard, where he launched his car over Alesi and Mansell. There were 1st podiums for Dallara and Onyx, and a 1st double points-finish for Minardi, while Rial and Zakspeed pulled out at the end of the season. This season marked the retirements of Rene Arnoux, Eddie Cheever, Piercarlo Ghinzani and Jonathan Palmer. All in all, 1989 had been F1′s most competitive season ever with 29 point-scorers from 16 teams, an all-time high. This marked the perfect send-off for F1 in the 1980′s.